ATHTHÓGÁIL:

Ár Modh Chun É A Aththógáil

AN MIOTAS CAILLTE CEILTEACH CRUTHAITHE

(Our Methodology For Reconstructing It)

(ar nós Indó-Eorpach agus bunaithe ar “Gabháil Cheasrach”)

 

English Version

Gnéithe I gCoitinne I Miotais Indó-Eorpacha Cruthaithe

 

 

 

Ar dtús, ní raibh ach folús, agus muir dhorcha ann. Agus bhí teas sa mhuir dhorcha, agus de sin tháinig dúil, an chéad síol intinne (.i., an chéad smaoineamh), agus leis an smaoineamh sin, tháinig Bith isteach i mbeith.  

Ansin, nochtadh Bith as an muir dhorcha. Agus thosaigh sé an cosmas a chruthú de féin, .i. an spéir, na réalta, an ghrian, an ghealach, na plainéid, agus ba é an chéad a d’ullmhaigh an deoch neamhbhásmhaireachta.  

Ansin, chruthaigh Bith Bóchra mar bhean agus mar mhuir, agus na farraigí agus aibhneacha freisin i nduabhal-fhoirm: mná agus uiscí. Agus luigh sé le Bóchra agus rugadh Fionntain léi, agus Ceasair freisin. (Ach deireann drong eile gur luigh Labhraidh le Bóchra agus gur tháinig Fionntain as an lánúin sin.) Ar aon chuma, tá anmneacha eile ag Ceasair, .i., Banba, Balba, agus Barrfhind. Agus chruthaigh Bith i nduabhal-fhoirm ise freisin mar Ghaea i measc na nGréagach: bean agus talamh.

Agus rugadh na Fomhoraigh le Bóchra freisin, agus d’fhan na Fomhoraigh istigh i mBóchra go fada mar is ‘fé-mhuir’ an chiall dona n-ainm. Agus ba dheamhain chruasacha olca iad, daoine leath-shúileacha agus leath-chosacha agus leath-lámhacha a ba chuid acu, agus gruagach le súil amháin ina ndromanna a ba chuid eile, agus bhí béil mhóra fhiachlacha ina ndromanna ag cuid eile, ach dhealraigh cuid acu mar sinne freisin.       

Ansin, d’éirigh na Fomhoraigh amach as Bóchra an mhuir agus luigh cuid acu le chéile, agus luigh cuid acu leis na ban-déithe a chruthaigh Bith de féin (.i., na haibhneacha agus na farraigí). Rugadh péistí agus nathracha agus créatúir dhochracha leo, ach rugadh na Tuatha Dé Danann leo freisin mar is léir ó na sean-ghinealaigh.

Bhí Fionntain agus na Tuatha Dé Dannan níos cóire agus níos cothroma ná na Fomhoraigh, agus ba fhearr le Bith iad. Agus bhí cairdeas idir Fhionntain agus Thrí Dhia Na dTuath Dé Danann. (Tugaigí faoi deara go ndeireann na Laighin go raibh Labhraidh ina phríomh-dhia i measc na dTrí Dhéithe agus na dTuath Dé Danann.). Mar sin, thaispeán Bith do Fhionntain conas an deoch neamhbhásmhaireachta a ullmhú dó féin agus dosna Tuatha Dé Danann.

Ar ball, d’iarr Bith ar na Trí Dhia daoine a chruthú. (Agus deireann drong eile gur iarr Bith ar Fhionntain daoine a chruthú.) Agus cruthaíodh fear agus bean as dhá chrann iúir leo, agus tugadh go Fionntain iad a chothú agus iad a chosaint ó na Fomhoraigh, agus thug sé tine dóibh chun iad a choimeád te agus slán.  

Ba é Ladhra an chéad fhear seo, ar a dtugtar Adhna (‘ársa’) freisin. Agus bíonn tráidisiúin éagsúla ag na Laighin, na hUlaidh, na hÉrainn, na Cruithne, agus na Féni ar ainm an chéad mhná. Ar aon chuma, choimeád Fionntain bás agus galar uathu toisc gur fhear feasa é, agus liaigh, agus bhí a fhios aige conas an deoch neamhbhásmhaireachta a ullmhú. Agus d’fhás an fear Ladhra agus an bhean agus bhí mórán iníonacha acu agus mhéadaigh siad a líon. Agus i bhfreagairt don gceist cáiliúil "Cé hé an dia a chuir tine i gceann fir (.i. smaoineamh i n-intinn fir)?"  Ba é Fionntain é.   

Ar ball, d’ionsaigh na Fomhoraigh a gclann (.i., na Tuatha Dé Danann) agus bhí cogadh eadarthu ar cheann an domhain agus an chosmais go léir. Tháinig brón agus fearg ar Bhith é sin a fheiceáil, agus d’inis sé do Fhionntain a chréatúir a bhailiú le chéile chun iad a chosaint ón gcogadh. Agus bhí cath mór idir na Tuatha Dé Danann agus na Fomhoraigh – An Chéad Cath Maighe Tuireadh, agus tá aithne agaibh ar an scéal sin. 

Deirtear go bhfuair na Tuatha Dé Danann.an bua sa chath sin, ach bhí siad chomh lag sin ina dhiaidh go roghnaigh siad rí dona (Bres) ar chailleadh Nuadhat agus rinne siad síochán olc leis na Fomhoraigh.  Chuir na Fomhoraigh cáin uafásach ar na Tuatha Dé Danann:  trian a gclann, triain a mbainne, trian a mba, agus tugadh an cháin seo dosna Fomhoraigh ar Mhagh Sléachta gach Shamhain. Agus d’ith na Fomhoraigh na ba, d’ól siad an bainne, agus ní fheadar anois cad a tharla dosna páistí.  (Ar ith siad iad freisin?)   Bhí brón mór agus fearg ar Bhith é seo a fheiceáil ach ní raibh cumas aige na Fomhoraigh a stadadh.  Ach ansin, tháinig deis i nduine Lugha a tháinig go dtí na Tuatha Dé Danann oíche áthasach, agus tá aithne agaibh ar an scéal sin.

Ansin, d’ullmhaigh na Tuatha Dé Danann faoi rún chun cogadh a fhearadh i gcoinne na bhFomhorach arís. Agus sheol Lugh mac Chéin na dúnmharbhthóirí a mharaigh a athair (.i. Clann Tuireann) amach ar fud an domhain chun trí airm iontacha a fháil i n-éiric do Chian a athair agus chun áis a bhaint astu i gcoinne na bhFomhorach, agus thug Clann Tuireann na hairm sin thar ais dosna Tuatha Dé Danann agus fuair siad bás á dhéanamh, ach leis na h-airm sin bhí Lugh ullamh troid i gcoinne Bhaloir, agus tá aithne agaibh ar an scéal sin freisin.

Nuair a bhí na Tuatha Dé Danann ullamh, tháinig siad le chéile le Bith, agus chinnigh siad le chéile conas cath a bhriseadh ar na Fomhoraigh agus conas cruthú a shabháil.  Tugadh rabhadh do Fhionntain agus Cheasair (le Labhraidh nó le Bith é féin) airc a dhéanamh chun an cine daonna a thabhairt go himeall an domhain nár shroich na hainmhithe dochracha riamh. Agus sheol siad go hÉirinn, agus ansin, thaispeáin Bith do Fhionntain conas feart a dhéanamh chun Ladhra agus na maighdeanna a choimeád slán nuair a thiocfadh an díle. Agus tá aithne agaibh ar an scéal sin agus conas a roinneadh na maighdeanna i dtrí chuid, .i., cuid ag Bith, cuid ag Ladhra, agus cuid ag Fionntain agus Ceasair (fiú gur dhiúltaigh Fionntain luí le Ceasair ar dtús) toisc go bhfuil an scéal sin i Leagan 2 de Ghabháil Cheasrach i Lebor Gabála Érenn eagartha le MacAllister!.  Seo hiad ainmneacha na maighdeanna sin: mar a fhaightear sa scéal sin iad, agus cialla a n-ainmneacha go bhfios dúinn: 

Ceasair

Aithne  (.i., An Aithin)

Banba / Banda  (.i., Éire)

Balbo  (.i., Balbha -  leagan de Bhanba)

Ciper  (.i., An Chipir)

Espa  (.i., An Spáinn)

German  (.i., Germania)

Gothiam  (.i., Gothia)

Inde  (.i., India)

Lot  (.i., Lot Luaimneach.  I dtéacsanna eile, is ban-sinsear na bhFomhorach trína mac Cichol í seo)

Luam  (.i., Lot Luaimneach.  I dtéacsanna eile, is ban-sinsear na bhFomhorach trína mac Cichol í seo)

Ruichne / Raichne  (.i., Rheginia)

Torrian  (.i., Tyrhennia)

Traige  (.i., Thracia)

Aba / Abba  (.i., Abhainn)

Aíl  (.i., Ail)

Barrfhind / Barrann  (.i., Barr Fionn – ainm eile d’Éirinn)

Clos  (.i., Clós)

Dos  (.i., Dos)

Faíble / Failbi  (.i., Gníomhach)

Femar / Femair  (.i., Feamhar / Díomhaoin)

Froecar / Feochair  (.i., Fiochmhar)

Irrand  (.i., An Talamh / An Domhain)

Las (.i., Las)

Leos (.i., Leos)

Tamall  (.i., Tamall)

Addeós  (An Aetóip?  Nó Aegeus/Attica?  Nó Edis/Edessia san Airméin?)

Ain  (Alanii?  Albania?  An Aithin?)

Albor  (Arboin?  Mar sin, .Narbonia?)

Alla / Ella  (Alanii?  An Eilvéis?  Alanii?)

Buana / Bona  (Buan/Síor?  ‘Bona Dea’ as Laidin?  An Abhainn Bóinn?)

Della  (Delos?)

Duíb / Duba  (Afraic?  An Mhuir Dhubh?)

Fodarg / Fodord  (Deargtha? .i., Talamh Threabhtha?)

Foroll / Forall  (Lán Le hAillte?)

Fotra / Fothar  (An Phairtia?  An Pheirs?)

Iachor  (Icaria?  Icil, .i. An tSicil?  Iccail, .i. An Íodáil?)

Máil / Mil  (?)

Marr  (Muirid, .i. Mauritania?  Mairmen, .i. An Airméin?)

Nathra  (Lán Le Nathracha?)

Nera  (?) 

Raindi  (?)

Rind / Rinne  (Rinn Tíre?)

Rodarg / Rogairg  (Ró-Dheargtha, .i., Talamh Ró-Threabhtha?)

Samoll / Samall  (An tSamáir?)

Selba  (Seilbh?)

Sille  (Cilicia?  An tSicil?)

Sindi / Sind  (Huinusind, .i., Phoenicia?)

Tam / Tama  (< tamnach? .i. Áit Ghlas?  Nó an Abhainn Tamais?)

Tann / Tanna  (an Abhainn Tanis? .i., an Abhainn Don?)

Ansin, fuair Ladhra bás, agus ní raibh ann ach Fionntain, Ceasair, Bith, agus na maighdeanna a bheadh ina sinsir don gcine daonna go léir.  Ansin, d’ionsaigh na Tuatha Dé Danann na Fomhoraigh ar Mhagh Tuireadh arís agus ar fud an domhain, agus fuair na Tuatha Dé Danann an bua ag Magh Tuireadh (agus ba é sin an cath is tábhachtaí a bhriseadh ar na Fomhoraigh), agus dhíbir siad na Fomhoraigh agus cheangail siad thíos istigh sa domhan agus ag imeall an domhain iad, ach bhí an domhan lán le nimhe na bhFomhorach agus a gcréatúr dochrach fós.

Ansin, thairg Bith é féin agus a fhuil mar íobairt chun an domhan a úrú, an gníomh is deiridh den chruthú, chun nimhe na gcréatúr dochrach a ghlanadh ón domhain. Ghlac Na Trí Dhia a thairiscint, agus mharaigh siad é, agus tháinig a fhuil as mar dhíle. (Ach deireann drong eile gur sheoladh an díle le druidheacht na dTrí Dhéithe gan Bhith a mharú toisc go raibh Bith i ngach áit agus i ngach rud cheana féin.)  Ach faraoir, bhí cuid desna Tuatha Dé Danann ag troid i gcoinne na bhFomhorach fós ag Tor Chonainn agus níor thug siad faoi deara go raibh an díle ag éirí.  Agus iadsan i dteas catha, dhearmad siad an rabhadh ó Bhith agus Labhraidh, agus báíodh an chuid is mó díbh taobh le taobh na bhFomhorach.  Agus tá aithne agaibh ar an scéal sin freisin.

Ansin, sheas an t-uisce thar airde fir ar an domhan go léir, agus bhí créatúir dhochracha na bhFomhorach marbh go léir leis an díle, agus chuaigh siad isteach i bpoill sa talamh, agus glanadh a nimhe leis an díle. Ach bhí Fionntain agus na maighdeanna slán sabhailte i bhFeart Fhionntain, ach d’fhan Ceasair amach as an bhFeart.  Briseadh a croí le bás/íobairt a hathair, ach ní bhfuair sí bás. Báíodh í, ach ní bhfuair sí bás.  Bhí a fhios aici go raibh dán eile aici.  Ba mhaith léi baile a thabhairt dosna daoine a shabháileadh le Fionntain agus léi féin.     D’aistrigh Ceasair isteach ina foirm eile (.i., an talamh Barrfhind nó Banba nó Balba nó Ceasair) faoi na tonnta.  (Ach deireann drong eile gur cuireadh faoi Charn Cheasrach ag Cúl Cheasrach í nuair a bhriseadh a croí, agus go raibh sí faoi Charn Cheasrach nuair a tháinig an díle, agus mar sin, nár aistrigh sí isteach i dtalamh ag an am áirithe seo, fiú gur aistrigh sí ag am éigin toisc go mbíonn sí faoinár gcosa anois.)

Chuaigh céadta bliain thart.  Ansin, faoi dheireadh, shéad an ghaoth a ba anáil Bheatha a athar thar an domhan, bhailigh an ghaoth sin an t-uisce amach go dtí imeallta an domhain, úraíodh an domhan mar sin, chúlaigh an t-uisce chun an mhuir a líonadh suas mar atá aithne againn uirthi inniu, agus d’éirigh an talamh Barrfhind (nó Banba nó Balba nó Ceasair ina foirm eile) amach as an t-uisce.  Agus thug sí baile dúinn go deo.  Agus phós Fionntain na maighdeanna, agus bhí sliocht acu ionas go dtagann an cine daonna anuas uathu sin.

Agus mhair ár sinsear Fionntain blianta i gcruth daonna, blianta mar sheabhac, blianta i gcruth iolair, blianta mar eo, agus gan amhras blianta i gcruthanna eile, agus maireann sé fós, ach ní fheadar i gcén cruth a bhfuil sé anois.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A RECONSTRUCTION:

THE LOST CELTIC CREATION MYTH

(In Indo-European style based on ‘Ceasair’s Taking’)

At first, there was only emptiness, and a dark sea in it.  And there was heat in the dark sea, and from that came desire, the first seed of the mind (i.e., the first thought), and with that thought, Bith came into being. 

Then, Bith was revealed out of the dark sea.  And he started to create the cosmos from himself, that is, the sky, the stars, the sun, the moon, the planets, and he was the first to prepare the drink of immortality.

Then, Bith created Bóchra as a woman and as the ocean, and the seas and the rivers also in dual-form:  women and waters.  And he laid down with Bóchra and Fionntain was born by her, and Ceasair also.  (But another group says that Labhraidh laid down with Bóchra and that Fionntain comes from that couple.)  Anyway, Ceasair has other names, i.e., Banba, Balba, and Barrfhind.  And Bith created her in dual-form as well, like Gaea amongst the Greeks:  a woman and the land.

And the Fomhoraigh were born of Bóchra also, and they stayed within Bóchra for a long time as 'under-ocean' is the meaning of their name.  And they were hard, evil demons, a people one-eyed with one-foot and one-hand were some of them, and hairy with only one eye in their backs were some others, and others had great toothy mouths in their backs, but others of them looked like us as well. 

Then they rose out of Bóchra the ocean and some of them laid together, and some of them laid with the goddesses that Bith created from himself (i.e., the rivers and the seas).

Fionntain and the Tuatha Dé Danann were more just and more fair than the Fomhoraigh, and Bith preferred them.  And there was friendship between Fionntain and the Three Gods Of the Tuatha Dé Danann.  (Notice that the Laighin say that Labhraidh was the primary god amongst the Three Gods and the Tuatha Dé Danann.)  Therefore, Bith showed Fionntain how to prepare the drink of immortality for himself and for the Tuatha Dé Danann. 

Eventually, Bith asked the Three Gods to create people.  (And another group says that Bith asked Fionntain to create people.)  And a man and a woman were created out of two yew trees and were given to Fionntain to nourish them and to protect them from the Fomhoraigh, and he gave them fire to keep them warm and healthy.

Ladhra was this first man, who is called Adhna ('ancient') also.  And there are differing traditions among the Laighin, the Ulaidh, the Érainn, the Cruithne, and the Féni regarding the name of the first woman.  Anyway, Fionntain kept death and sickness from them because he was a man of knowledge, a physician, and he knew how to prepare the drink of immortality.  And Ladhra and the woman grew and they had many daughters and they increased their number.  And in answer to the famous question, "Who is the god who put fire in the head of man (i.e., thought in the mind of man)?  It was Fionntain.

Eventually, the Fomhoraigh attacked their children (i.e., the Tuatha Dé Danann) and there was war between them for the world and all the cosmos.  Sadness and anger came on Bith to see that, and he told Fionntain to collect his creatures together to protect them from the war.  And there was a great battle between the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Fomhoraigh  -  The First Battle Of Magh Tuireadh, and you know that story.

It is said that the Tuatha Dé Danann won that battle, but they were so weak after it that they chose a bad king (Bres) on the loss of Nuadu and they made an evil peace with the Fomhoraigh.  The Fomhoraigh put a horrible tribute on the Tuatha Dé Danann:  a third of their children, a third of their milk, a third of their cows, and this tribute was brought to Magh Sléachta each Samhain.  And the Fomhoraigh ate the cows, they drank the milk, and it's not known now what happened to the children.  (Did they eat them as well?)   There was great sadness and anger on Bith to see this but he didn't have the power to stop the Fomhoraigh.  But then, opportunity came in the person of Lugh who came to the Tuatha Dé Danann one happy night, and you know that story.

Then, the Tuatha Dé Danann secretly prepared to make war against the Fomhoraigh again.  And Lugh Son of Cian sent the murderers who killed his father (i.e., the Clann Tuireann) out into the world to obtain three wondrous weapons in blood-payment for Cian his father and to use them against the Fomhoraigh, and the Clann Tuireann brought those arms back to the Tuatha Dé Danann, and they died doing it, but with those weapons Lugh was ready to fight against Balor, and you know that story also.

When the Tuatha Dé Danann were ready, they came together with Bith, and they decided together how to break battle on the Fomhoraigh and how to save creation.  Warning was given to Fionntain and Ceasair (by Labhraidh or by Bith himself) to build an ark to bring the human race to the edge of the world where the venomous animals had never reached.  And they sailed to Ireland, and there, Bith showed Fionntain how to build a feart (a 'grave') to keep Ladhra and the maidens safe when the flood would come.  And you know that story and how the maidens were divided in three portions, i.e., Bith's portion, Ladhra's portion, and Fionntain and Ceasair's portion (even though Fionntain refused to lay with Ceasair at first) because that story is in Redaction 2 of Gabháil Cheasrach in Lebor Gabála Érenn edited by MacAllister!  Here are the names of those maidens as they are found in that story, and the meanings of their names as far as we know:

Ceasair

Aithne  (Athens)

Banba / Banda  (Ireland)

Balbo  (i.e., Balba, a variant of Banba)

Ciper  (Cyprus)

Espa  (Spain)

German  (Germania)

Gothiam  (Gothia)

Inde  (India)

Lot  (Lot Luaimneach.  In other texts, she is an ancestress of the Fomhoraigh through her son Cichol.)

Luam  (Lot Luaimneach.  In other texts, she is an ancestress of the Fomhoraigh through her son Cichol.)

Ruichne / Raichne  (Rheginia)

Torrian  (Tyrhennia)

Traige  (Thrace)

Aba / Abba  (River)

Aíl  (Rock)

Barrfhind / Barrann  (Shining Top – another name for Ireland)

Clos  (Field / Enclosure)

Dos  (Bush / Copse of Trees)

Faíble / Failbi  (Active)

Femar / Femair  (Idle)

Froecar / Feochair  (Fierce / Savage)

Irrand  (The Earth / The World)

Las  (Light)

Leos  (Light)

Tamall  (Interval / Space / Distance)

Addeós  (Ethiopia?  Or Aegeus / Aegean area, i.e., Attica?  Or Edis/Edessia in Armenia?)

Ain  (Alanii?  Albania?  Athens?)

Albor  (Arboin?  Thus, Narbonia?)

Alla / Ella  (Alanii?  Helvetia?)

Buana / Bona  (Everlasting?  ‘Bona Dea’ from Latin?  The River Boyne?)

Della  (Delos?)

Duíb / Duba  (Africa?  The Black Sea?)

Fodarg / Fodord  (Reddened, i.e., Plowed Land?)

Foroll / Forall  (Full of Cliffs?)

Fotra / Fothar  (Parthia?  Persia?)

Iachor  (Icaria?  Icil, thus Sicily?  Iccail, thus Italy?)

Máil / Mil  (?)

Marr  (Muirid, thus Mauritania?  Mairmen, thus Armenia?)

Nathra  (Full of Snakes?)

Nera  (?)

Raindi  (?)

Rind / Rinne  (Promontory?)

Rodarg / Rogairg  (Greatly or Overly Reddened, i.e., Greatly or Overly Plowed land?)

Samoll / Samall  (Samaria?)

Selba  (Possession / Property / Domain?)

Sille  (Cilicia?  Sicily?)

Sindi / Sind  (Huinusind, .i.e., Phoenicia?)

Tam / Tama  (Tamnach?  Thus, a Green Place or Clearing?  Or The River Thames?)

Tann / Tanna  (the River Tanais?  i.e., the River Don?)

Then, Ladhra died, and only Fionntain, Ceasair, and Bith were left, and the maidens who would become the ancestors of all the human race.  Then, the Tuatha Dé Danann attacked the Fomhoraigh at Magh Tuireadh again and throughout the world, and the Tuatha Dé Danann won at Magh Tuireadh (and that battle was the most important which was broken on the Fomhoraigh), and they banished the Fomhoraigh and bound them down inside the earth and at the edge of the world, and the world was still full of the poison of the Fomhoraigh and their venomous creatures.

Then Bith offered himself and his blood as a sacrifice to purify the world, the last deed of the creation, to clean the poison of the venomous creatures from the world.  The Three Gods accepted his offer, and they killed him, and his blood came out as a flood.  (But others say that the flood was created through the druidheacht of the Three Gods without killing Bith because he was already everywhere and in everything.)  But, unfortunately, some of the Tuatha Dé Danann were still fighting against the Fomhoraigh at Tor Chonainn and they didn't notice that the flood was rising. And being in the heat of battle, they forgot the warning from Bith and Labhraidh, and most of them were drowned side by side with the Fomhoraigh.  And you know that story too.

Then the water rose above the height of a man throughout the whole world, and the venomous creatures were all dead by the flood, and they went into the holes in the earth, and their venom was cleansed by the flood.  But Fionntain and the maidens were safe and saved in Feart Fhionntain, but Ceasair stayed out of the Feart.  Her heart was broken by the death / sacrifice of her father, but she did not die.  She was drowned, but she did not die.  She knew that she had another fate.  She wanted to give a home to the people who were saved by Fionntain and herself.  Ceasair changed into her other form (i.e., the land Barrfhind /'shining top' or Banba or Balba or Ceasair – all names for Ireland) under the waves.  (But others say that she was buried in Carn Cheasrach / ‘the burial mound of Ceasair’ at Cúl Cheasrach / ‘Ceasair’s Nook’ when her heart was broken, and that she was under Carn Cheasrach when the flood came, and therefore, she did not change into land at this particular time, although she changed at some point because she’s under our feet now.)

Hundreds of years went by.  Then, at last, the wind which was the breath of Bith her father blew across the world, that wind collected the water out to the edges of the world, the world was purified thereby, the water retreated towards the ocean which was filled up as we know it today, and the land Barrfhind ('shining top', or Banba or Balba, or Ceasair in her other form) rose out of the water.  And she gave a home to us forever.  And Fionntain married the maidens, and they had progeny so that the human race descends from them.

And our ancestor Fionntain lived years in human form, years as a hawk, years in the form of an eagle, years as a salmon, and without doubt years in other forms, and he lives still, but it's not known in what form he is now.